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 Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008).International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings ofpictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. University ofFlorida, Gainesville, FL.
The Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) provides a set ofnormative emotional ratings for a large number of words in the Englishlanguage. This set of verbal materials have been rated in terms ofpleasure, arousal, and dominance to complement the existingInternational Affective Picture System (IAPS, Lang, Bradley, &Cuthbert, 1999) and International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS;Bradley & Lang, 1999), which are collections of picture andsound stimuli, respectively, that also include these affective ratings.The ANEW is being developed and distributed by the Center for Emotionand Attention (CSEA) at the University of Florida.
Dan-Glauser, E. S., & Scherer, K. R. (2011). The Geneva affective picture database (GAPED): a new 730-picture database focusing on valence and normative significance. Behavior Research Methods, 43(2), 468-477. doi: 10.3758/s13428-011-0064-1
Selecting appropriate stimuli to induce emotional states is essential in affective research. Only a few standardized affective stimulus databases have been created for auditory, language, and visual materials. Numerous studies have extensively employed these databases using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods. However, some limitations of the existing databases have recently been reported, including limited numbers of stimuli in specific categories or poor picture quality of the visual stimuli. In the present article, we introduce the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS), which consists of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs that are divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). Affective ratings were collected from 204 mostly European participants. The pictures were rated according to the valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance dimensions using computerized bipolar semantic slider scales. Normative ratings for the categories are presented for each dimension. Validation of the ratings was obtained by comparing them to ratings generated using the Self-Assessment Manikin and the International Affective Picture System. In addition, the physical properties of the photographs are reported, including luminance, contrast, and entropy. The new database, with accompanying ratings and image parameters, allows researchers to select a variety of visual stimulus materials specific to their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use by request at .
Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.Pictures: 1196Categories: Multiple, from furniture to complete scene, wide range of semantic categories.Normative ratings: Valence, arousal, and dominance
Dan-Glauser, E. S., & Scherer, K. R. (2011). The Geneva affective picture database (GAPED): a new 730-picture database focusing on valence and normative significance. Behavior Research Methods, 43(2), 468-477. doi: 10.3758/s13428-011-0064-1Pictures: 730Categories: spiders, snakes, and scenes that induce emotions related to the violation of moral and legal norms (human rights violation or animal mistreatment). Positive and neutral pictures were also included.Normative ratings: Valence, Arousal, external norm and internal norm.
We introduce the Open Affective Standardized Image Set (OASIS), an open-access online stimulus set containing 900 color images depicting a broad spectrum of themes, including humans, animals, objects, and scenes, along with normative ratings on two affective dimensions-valence (i.e., the degree of positive or negative affective response that the image evokes) and arousal (i.e., the intensity of the affective response that the image evokes). The OASIS images were collected from online sources, and valence and arousal ratings were obtained in an online study (total N = 822). The valence and arousal ratings covered much of the circumplex space and were highly reliable and consistent across gender groups. OASIS has four advantages: (a) the stimulus set contains a large number of images in four categories; (b) the data were collected in 2015, and thus OASIS features more current images and reflects more current ratings of valence and arousal than do existing stimulus sets; (c) the OASIS database affords users the ability to interactively explore images by category and ratings; and, most critically, (d) OASIS allows for free use of the images in online and offline research studies, as they are not subject to the copyright restrictions that apply to the International Affective Picture System. The OASIS images, along with normative valence and arousal ratings, are available for download from www.benedekkurdi.com/#oasis or .
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) has been developed to provide a set of emotional stimuli to assist in research assessing human emotions and attention. IAPS includes 823 standardized, emotionally evocative, internationally accessible, color photographs spanning nine general categories: animal, facial, mutilation, erotic, landscape, violence, objects, sport and pollution . The emotional response to individual pictures can be assessed in the following three dimensions: valence (happy versus unhappy), arousal (excited versus calm), and dominance (controlled versus in-control). The IAPS has been used in many functional neuroimaging studies  and assessment of a broad range of psychiatric disorders .
IAPS pictures were used as visual stimuli to induce affective reactions. We excluded seven pictures that did not have proper norms. Therefore, the valence and arousal dimensions of affective responses to 816 images [8,9,11] were assessed in Chinese participants (available from: ). The 816 pictures were randomized and divided into three sets. The pictures were presented using the Presentation software (Neurobehavioral Systems, Inc., Albany, CA, USA). Each participant was seated, facing a screen to which the pictures were projected; consecutive sets were separated by a 15-minute break. Each picture was presented for 4 seconds followed by a gray screen for 6 seconds.
In order to assess the differences in affective reactions between young Chinese and American adults, undergraduate students of these countries underwent an evaluation using IAPS pictures. Self-reported responses of participants were assessed individually, and valence and arousal scores assigned to a large proportion of pictures differed between American and Chinese, both in male and female participants. In addition, the valence scores assigned to erotic pictures differed significantly between Chinese and American female participants.
Chinese females demonstrated higher arousal reactions corresponding to facial pictures in IAPS. They more frequently reported negative reactions to erotic pictures, which induced positive reactions in American females. This difference in attitude to sexuality may be associated with differences in sex culture and education between both countries. Indeed, research suggests that sex education in China is lagging behind and compares to the situation in western countries in the 1970s; indeed, nudity was then more likely to be regarded as offensive . In the Erotic category, the pictures that received the highest valence scores by Chinese female participants were weddings and non-nude romantic pictures. However, American females commonly rated pictures featuring nudity or male genitals with highest valence scores. These pictures were more likely to induce negative affective reactions in Chinese females. These results corroborate several previous cross-cultural studies. A study assessing 48 nations indicated that human mating strategies vary geographically . In addition, a 37-country study reported that non-Western societies (China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Taiwan and Palestinian Arabs) attribute a higher value to chastity in a potential mate compared with Western European societies (Sweden, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands, Germany and France), attaching little importance to prior sexual experience . We conclude that the cultural background, therefore, directly influences the affective reaction generated in response to sex stimulus. The IAPS images categorized as Erotic have been widely applied in neuro-imaging studies of positive emotions in American participants [19-22], but our findings indicate that these pictures could not be applied in the same way in Chinese women.
In summary, Chinese young adults display different affective reactions compared with their American counterparts in response to a large proportion of pictures in the IAPS. In particular, Chinese women responded significantly less positively to erotic images than American women. Therefore, IAPS requires modifications for its appropriate application in Asian cultures.
In the last decades, food pictures have been repeatedly employed to investigate the emotional impact of food on healthy participants as well as individuals who suffer from eating disorders and obesity. However, despite their widespread use, food pictures are typically selected according to each researcher's personal criteria, which make it difficult to reliably select food images and to compare results across different studies and laboratories. Therefore, to study affective reactions to food, it becomes pivotal to identify the emotional impact of specific food images based on wider samples of individuals. In the present paper we introduce the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF), which is a set of original food pictures created to reliably select food pictures based on the emotions they prompt, as indicated by affective ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance and by an additional food craving scale. OLAF images were designed to allow simultaneous use with affective images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which is a well-known instrument to investigate emotional reactions in the laboratory. The ultimate goal of the OLAF is to contribute to understanding how food is emotionally processed in healthy individuals and in patients who suffer from eating and weight-related disorders. The present normative data, which was based on a large sample of an adolescent population, indicate that when viewing affective non-food IAPS images, valence, arousal, and dominance ratings were in line with expected patterns based on previous emotion research. Moreover, when viewing food pictures, affective and food craving ratings were consistent with research on food cue processing. As a whole, the data supported the methodological and theoretical reliability of the OLAF ratings, therefore providing researchers with a standardized tool to reliably investigate the emotional and motivational significance of food. The OLAF database is publicly available at zenodo.org. 2b1af7f3a8